The substructure was considered an ideal candidate for cathodic protection (CP) but problems with the failures of experimental cathodic protection applications on substructures prevented the use of this technology as a means of mitigating the problem. The development of Electrochemical Chloride Removal (ECR) as an alternative rehabilitation strategy to CP provides a method of stabilizing the deterioration and reducing the corrosion to a manageable level. ECR was first developed in the mid-1970s but the initial research was not promising. Recent developments with ECR both in Europe and as part of the SHRP research have overcome many of the problems. Electrochemical Chloride Removal consists of installing a temporary anode on the surface of the concrete to be treated encased in a suitable electrolyte. Direct electrical current is applied to the structure with the positive side of the circuit connected to the anode and the steel made the system negative. Current flow forces negative chloride ions (Cl-) to migrate toward the anode and away from the steel while positive ions move inward toward the steel to maintain charge neutrality. ECR is a temporary version of CP with much higher current densities employed to facilitate the rapid migration of the Cl- ions.